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Scam Dictionary

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Scammers use a variety of techniques to trick people into handing over personal information to gain access to their personal finances. The terminology around this type of fraud is constantly changing. Below is a list of fraud and security terms you should be familiar with.

Software created to detect, prevent, and eliminate viruses and other forms of malicious software, helping people avoid falling victim to scams.
Malicious endeavours aimed at harming, disrupting, computer systems, networks, or devices through cyber means.
The safeguarding of devices, services, and networks, along with the protection of the information they contain, against theft or damage.
Data hack
Also known as a data breach or data security breach, refers to the unauthorised access, acquisition, or disclosure of personal information stored in a computer system, network, or database. It involves the intentional or unintentional intrusion into a system's security measures by hackers or cybercriminals, resulting in the compromise of personal, financial, or other sensitive data.
Malware is any program or file designed with the explicit purpose of causing harm to a computer, network, or server. There are various forms of malware, including computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, and spyware. These harmful programs engage in activities such as stealing, encrypting, or deleting sensitive data; manipulating or taking control of critical computing operations; and monitoring the activities of computer users.
Multi-factor authentication
An authentication method that asks users to provide two or more verification factors to access their account such as entering a six code sent to your mobile or email to confirm you are logging in.
Mass emails sent to numerous individuals without targeting them specifically, requesting sensitive information (such as bank details) or enticing them to visit counterfeit websites.
When scammers use malicious software to redirect you to their scam website despite entering the correct site you wanted to visit.
An SMS that looks like it was received from a bank or legitimate organisation, asking users to click on a fraudulent link to disclose personal information.
A malicious computer program that disables your computer and demands a fee to fix the issue.
Trojan Horse

Malicious software hidden within seemingly harmless data and looks like a normal program. When activated, the software can access information on your hard drive and send personal data to hackers.


The deceptive practice of making phone calls or leaving voice messages impersonating reputable companies, with the intention of coaxing individuals into disclosing personal information such as bank details and credit card numbers.


Programs that possess the ability to self-replicate and are designed to infect legitimate software programs or systems. They fall under the category of malware.